The cerebellum might be the cortex’s workhorse.

It turns out that the cerebellum is connected to all the cortical regions, not just the motor cortex. Moreover, a damaged cerebellum leads to emotional and cognitive problems. Lesser and great apes have disproportionately large cerebellums. Human cerebellums are even larger. They appear to be rather well designed to achieve learning, with updating for fresh experiences. At a local level, cerebellar neurons are able to be refreshed constantly by so-called climbing fibres. As a result, the cerebellum is well placed for planning, not just for movement. Given its cortical connectivity, researchers conclude that this extends to emotional and social planning too.

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