Dopamine has numerous ways in which to express itself.

Decision-making in the brain is a complex process. Yet dopamine is sometimes seen as a excitatory agent underpinning the processing of many of the variables that go into decision-making in a uniform manner. Clever research with mice, however, suggests that the way that dopamine is expressed varies widely. In other words, dopamine is the same all over the brain as a substance. But the ways it manifests itself, and therefore the effects it has, are numerous. Dopamine neurons thereby facilitate the brain’s analysis of many different variables in making decisions.

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